Neco 2021 human geography answers


(i) Rural – Urban Migration: This has to do with the movement of people from the various villages to towns and cities.
(ii) Urban – Rural Migration: This refers to the movement of people from cities and towns to villages.
(iii) Rural – Rural Migration: This is the movement of people from one village to another. This type of movement often occurs in areas where the soil is very fertile for agricultural purposes.

(i) Migration helps to reduce the pressure on social amenities within one geographical region.
(ii) It helps to promote cultural integrity.
(iii) It aids the supply of labour.
(iv) It ensures the flow of capital.

(i) Migration often breeds social vices.
(ii) It brings decline in production.
(iii) Migration often leads to unemployment.

(iv) Migration leads to congestion in transportation and housing.

(i) Brazil
(ii) China
(iii) India

(i) Leads
(ii) Rubber
(iii) Raw hides and skins

(i) Iron and steel
(ii) Electrical,electronic equipments

(i) Different factor endowments some economies are rich in natural resources while others have relatively little. Trade enables economies to specialise in the export of some resources and earn revenue to pay for imports of other goods.

(ii) Increased welfare specialisation (where countries have a comparative advantage see the next section for more detail on this) and trade allow countries to gain a higher level of consumption than they would do domestically and this leads to increased welfare and higher living standards.

(iii) To gain economies of scale with specialisation and production on a larger scale than may be possible domestically, a country may be able to gain more economies of scale. This will lead to lower average costs and benefit consumers through lower prices.

(iv) Diversity of choice trade enables us to access goods and services that we may not be able to produce ourselves.

(i)Peasants are households which derive their livelihoods partly from agriculture.

(ii)utilise mainly family labour in farm production, integrate household production

(iii)consumption activities and decisions, and are characterised by partial engagement in input and output markets which are often imperfect or incomplete

(i)Unsuitable climatic conditions: Climatic conditions vary from areas of excessive rainfall to areas of excessive drought. These two types of climatic conditions are detrimental to crop and animal growth.

(ii) Poor technical knowledge: The farmers lack requisite technical knowledge and modern skills to raise the standard of farming and agricultural production in their countries.

(iii) Use of crude implements: West African farmers still use crude implements such as cutlass, hoes etc for farming. They have no opportunity for mechanized farming.

(iv) Rural- urban drift: The imbalance in urban-rural economy has led to rural -urban drift. Agriculture has thus been losing its vital labour force without replacing it with mechanization.

(i) Efficient use of land through suitable land use policy

(ii) An integrated approach to rural development

Climate and vegetation
The climate of this region is mainly the sub-equatorial climate with high rainfall of over 300cm throughout the year with double maxima. It has low temperature of 21°C due to the nearness to sea and the effects of south-west winds. The vegetation is that of tropical rainforest with tall evergreen trees.

It includes:
(i) Farming which leads to production of food and cash crop like rubber, oil palm etc

(ii) Fishing due to the presence of rivers and oceans

(iii) Lumbering due to presence of economic trees( timber)

(iv) Mining due to presence of limestone and petroleum

(i) Transport is very poor owing to presence of many rivers and swamps
(ii) Soil erosion due to heavy rainfall
(iii) Water and land pollution due to mining of petroleum
(iv) Problems of farming and fishing created by oil spillage

(i) Construction of flyovers
(ii) Avoidance of pollution

(iii) Control of soil erosion

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