NECO 2021 IRS ANSWERS

NECO 2021 IRS SOLUTION


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 Theory

Answer only five (5) Question, one from each section 


(NUMBER 1)

i. إِۦلَٰفِهِمۡ رِحۡلَةَ اَ۬لشِّتَآءِ وَالصَّيۡفِ ۝‎ 
ii. فَلۡيَعۡبُدُوا۟ رَبَّ هَٰذَا اَ۬لۡبَيۡتِ ۝‎ 
iii. اِ۬لَّذِےٓ أَطۡعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ ۝‎ 
iv. وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنۡ خَوۡفٍۭ ۝‎ 

*(1b)*
_-(Choose any 2)-_

i. Allāh blessed the Quraysh with security when they sent caravans on business trips, all year round. No one would attack them because of their ties with the House of Allāh.

ii. Allāh sends us blessings and bounties, and expects of us to worship and obey Him alone in return.

iii. Allāh also blessed the Quraysh in that much would be brought to them in terms of sustenance, whilst those in surrounding places would suffer. We too witness this when visiting Makkah: we find all kinds of food, drink and other items, at even the most busiest of periods.

iv. Never take the blessings of Allāh for granted. Always show gratitude by remaining obedient to him.

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(3a)

عَنْ أَبِي يَعْلَى شَدَّادِ بْنِ أَوْسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه و سلم قَالَ: “إنَّ اللَّهَ كَتَبَ الْإِحْسَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ، فَإِذَا قَتَلْتُمْ فَأَحْسِنُوا الْقِتْلَةَ، وَإِذَا ذَبَحْتُمْ فَأَحْسِنُوا الذِّبْحَةَ، وَلْيُحِدَّ أَحَدُكُمْ شَفْرَتَهُ، وَلْيُرِحْ ذَبِيحَتَهُ”. [رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ].

(3b)

Hadith, Arabic Ḥadīth (“News” or “Story”), also spelled Hadīt, record of the traditions or sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, revered and received as a major source of religious law and moral guidance, second only to the authority of the Qurʾān, the holy book of Islam. It might be defined as the biography of Muhammad perpetuated by the long memory of his community for their exemplification and obedience. The development of Hadith is a vital element during the first three centuries of Islamic history, and its study provides a broad index to the mind and ethos of Islam.
The term Hadith derives from the Arabic root ḥ-d-th meaning “to happen” and so “to tell a happening,” “to report,” “to have, or give, as news,” or “to speak of.” It means tradition seen as narrative and record. From Hadith comes the Sunnah (literally, a “well-trodden path”—i.e., taken as precedent and authority or directive), to which the faithful conform in submission to the sanction that Hadith possesses and that legalists, on that ground, can enjoin. Tradition in Islam is thus both content and constraint, Hadith as the biographical ground of law and Sunnah as the system of obligation derived from it. In and through Hadith, Muhammad may be said to have shaped and determined from the grave the behaviour patterns of the household of Islam by the posthumous leadership his personality exercised. There were, broadly, two factors operating to this end. One was the unique status of Muhammad in the genesis of Islam, and the other was the rapid geographical expansion of the new faith in the first two centuries of its history into various areas of cultural confrontation. Hadith cannot be rightly assessed unless the measure of these two elements and their interaction is properly taken.

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(4)

i. Establish and strengthen the laws prescribed by the Qur’an:
In this case both together to be a source of law. For example, Allah in the Qur’an forbade to testify falsely in his word Q.S Al-Hajj verse 30 which means “And turn away the words of lies.” Then the Prophet with his Hadith reinforces: “Pay attention! I will declare to you the greatest of sins! “We replied:” All right, O Messenger of God. “He continued, his sabdah:” (1) Mushrik to Allah, (2) Hurt both parents. “At that time the Prophet was leaning, suddenly sat saying again:” Watch out! Said (testified) false.” (HR Bukhari – Muslim).
So, the Qur’an tells the forbidden one in the general. Then, the hadith perfects it with the description and the detail.

ii. Giving details and interpretations of the verses of the Qur’an that are still Mujmal:
There is something in the Qur’an that is not written in details so we need to understand it by some ways. The hadith is one of the ways to know more about it so we must read the hadith after reading the Qur’an. In addition, the hadith gives Taqyid (requirements) verses of the Qur’an are still explained in general.
For example, the command to do the prayer, pay zakat and perform the pilgrimage in the Qur’an is not explained the number of raka’at and how to perform the prayer, not specified the nisab of zakat and not presented the ways to perform the pilgrimage. However, they have been explained in detail and interpreted as clearly as Al-Hadith.

iii. Setting Problems Not Explained by the Qur’an:
The position of the Hadith in the establishment of a new law not set by the Qur’an shows that the Hadith is a source of Islamic law. The hadith is also in establishing the law of self-standing because it sometimes carries a law not mentioned in the Qur’an, such as giving an inheritance to a grandmother (jaddah), where the Prophet SAW gives one-sixth of the treasure of the deceased. Thus the function of the Hadith is a source of law in human life to obtain the happiness of the world and the hereafter.

iv. *The Prophet must be obeyed:*
The presence of the Prophet (s) is not merely a ‘transmitter’ of Allah’s teachings, where his advice and suggestions are left to evaporate in the air without any obedience from his people. One will not be called a believer when he does not apply the teachings of Allah in his daily life. When the Prophet was still alive, the teachings of God were reflected in his daily life. While after his death, the teachings of Allah are reflected in the hadith he left behind. Therefore, a Muslim besides being sued to be loyal to Allah, he is also prosecuted loyal to His Apostle.

v. *Become closer to Allah, Prophet, and martyrs:*
By learning and doing what the hadith says, we will become closer to Allah, Prophet, and martyrs. In addition, we will become the companion of these people and Allah. There are many benefits for us when we already become these companion.
*”And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger then those (will be) with those whom Allah has bestowed (His) Favor upon them – of the Prophets, and the truthful, and the martyrs, and the righteous. And excellent (are) those companion(s).”*

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(5a)
Polygamy is the act of marrying multiple spouses, that means having more than one husband or wife at the same time. The term is the opposite of monogamy which is the more common practice of having just one spouse at any given moment.

(5b)
i.Care, warmth and affection provided by wives or mistresses.
ii.The complexity of choice disappears, when you need to prefer only one companion for life.
iii.The diversity of the gene pool.
iv.When parting with one, there are still others.
v. Contribute significantly to the wealth of the household and can thus materially benefit from the labour of an additional spouse

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(NUMBER 6)
(6a)
(i)Prophet Isa
(ii)Prophet Musa
(iii)Prophet Ibrahim
(iv)Prophet Ismail
(v)Prophet lukman
(vi)Prophet yacoob/yakub.
(vii)Prophet ayub
(viii)Prophet Ishaq
(ix)Prophet salih
(x)Prophet Muhammad

(6b)
(i)Prophets pass the word of Allah to the people.
(ii)Prophets teach people the way of Allah.

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Q8. 

Uthman Dan Fodio is an Islamic preacher, reformer, scholar, and statesman, Usman dan Fodio was born on December 15, 1754 in the village of Maratta, in the Hausa city-state of Gobir, in what is today northern Nigeria. He was a descendant of the early Fulani settlers in Hausaland in the 15th century. He spent his youth in the devout pursuit of Islamic religious education, and his early manhood preaching, teaching, and writing.

Dan Fodio became an itinerant Muslim preacher in 1774, moving among rural communities. He was a leader in the expansion of Islam across the Hausa countryside, increasing the popular basis for religious teaching and bringing literacy to numerous small communities. He wrote poems and stories of mysticism that increased his popularity as a teacher and preacher.

Throughout his proselytizing dan Fodio told of being given the “Sword of Truth” to advance Islamic law and defeat the enemies of Allah. His “sword” was the written and oral word through prose and verse. Usman found, however, that Hausa rulers, following common Hausa practice, had mixed “pagan” practices with Islamic ones and did not adhere closely to Islam. He began to criticize these rulers.

In 1802 dan Fodio led hundreds of his followers from his home city of Gobir into exile in the countryside after the city’s rulers attempted to assassinate him. There he refined his reformist ideas and formed, directed, and educated a force to lead a jihad or holy war against the Hausa rulers. In 1804, Yunfa dan Nafata, the military commander of Gobir, sent his army to challenge Usman’s community which now included Fulani pastoralists who had their own grievances against Hausa rulers over a cattle tax.

Dan Fodio seized this incident to call for jihad against the rulers of Gobir. By 1808, he and his followers conquered Gobir, Kano, and other Hausa city-states. He retired from battle in 1811 and returned to teaching and writing but his armies continued their conquests until 1815. By that point when those armies ended their conquests, Usman dan Fodio’s religious empire included most of what is now northern Nigeria and northern Cameroon as well as parts of Niger. For the first time in history all of the Hausa city-states were now under one ruler. Dan Fodio established a new capital at Sokoto and soon this theocratic state was called the Sokoto Caliphate (Sokoto Empire).

Usman dan Fodio’s jihad inspired a series of holy wars throughout the Western Sudan and made Islam the dominant faith among the masses of people from Senegal to Chad. His movement also led to a poetic and literary explosion in Gobir, Kano, Katsina, and other Hausa city states. The surviving Arabic writings of the Sokoto Caliphate far outnumber the whole literary production of the central and western Sudan from 1000 AD, when Islam first appeared in West Africa, up to 1802. Arabic was now widely used for diplomacy and correspondence throughout the region.

Usman dan Fodio divided his conquests between his brother, Abdullahi, who ruled the western part of the kingdom, and his son, Muhammad Bello, who ruled the eastern part of the kingdom including the Hausa city-states. By the end of Bello’s rule in 1837, the Sokoto Caliphate, with an estimated 20 million people, had become the most populous empire in West Africa. Dan Fodio, who had begun his life as an idealistic scholar and theologian who at first rejected the sword, eventually became the forceful and commanding leader of a formidable military empire. He died on April 20, 1817 in Sokoto.
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