NABTEB 2021 agricultural science











(i) Economic limitation

(ii)Technical limitation

(iii)Lack of maintenance

(iv)small farm holding

(v) Displacement of workers

(vi) Degradation of landscape


(i) Economic limitation: Machines are not readily available in the country. Most farmers are poor and cannot afford them. Cost of hiring the machines is high exorbitant . Cost of maintenance is high. Operators of machines demand high pay/wages which most farmers cannot afford.

(ii)Technical limitation: There us lack of technical know-how of the machines. Experts on these machines are not readily available. Mode of operations of most machines are not known. most of the machines are not adapted in our local environment/needs. Very few schools exist for the training of machine operators.

(iii)Lack of maintenance: Most machines are imported . Replacement parts are not available. Inadequate trained personnel to repair farm machines. Facilities for repair and maintenance are lacking . The very few trained personnel are not always available when machines break down

(iv)Small farm holding: Land tenure system encourage fragmentation of land which cannot be mechanised . Fragmentation of land discourages mechanisation. Agriculture is practised by peasant farmers. Peasant farmers have small area of farmland.


Farm planning is a drawing or outline of a farmstead. It also involves the proper land use planning ie putting the land into use for which it is the best suited without the risk of land degradation.


(Choose any Four)

(i)ranging pole

(ii)measuring tape


(iv)gunter’s chain

(v)beacons or pillars

(vi)arrows or pin

(vii)prismatic compass


(Choose any two)

(i) Transportation of farm input,materials and farm produce/haulage with trailer attached

(ii)It operates water pumps for irrigation or other farm purposes

(iii)lifting of coupled implements through the hydraulic system

(iv)pulling of farm implements like ploughs etc

(v)planting seeds when coupled with planters

(vi)It can be used to operate milking machines

(vii)it can be stationary power source for equipment like shellers send grinders.



Soil texture refers to the relative proportion (sizes) of the various particles of the soil. In order words, it refers to the degree of fineness or coarseness of the various soil particles.


(Choose any Four)

(i)Planting cover crops

(ii) Application of compost manure

(iii) Application of farm yard manure

(iv)mulching the soil

(v)Avoidance of bush burning


(Choose any Five)

(i) Limestone


(iii)slaked lime

(iv)Basic slag

(v)Dolomite or calcite

(vi)Calcium bicarbonate


(viii)Wood ash


(Choose any Five)

(i) Fertilizer help to increase the yield of crops

(ii)They improve the structure of the soil

(iii)They increase the activities of soil organisms

(iv) They improve soul aeration

(v)They increase the fertility of the soil

(vi)They increase the growth of planktons in fish ponds.


(Choose any two)

(i) Broadcasting

(ii) Ring method

(iii) Row or side placement

(iv)Top dressing

(v) Folial spray



(i)The prohibition of bush burning

(ii)Ban on indiscriminate cutting of timber trees

(iii)encourage people to plant trees

(iv)Ban on farming in Forest reserves

(v)Ban on the cutting down of under aged tree


Taungya system is defined as the planting of arable crops at early stages of Forest establishment and the arable cops are harvested before the trees form canopies.


(Choose any Four)


(ii)Bee suit

(iii)Queen Catcher

(iv) Bee Hive

(v)Frames and foundation


(Choose any Five)

(i)it lead to loss of soil nutrients

(ii)It lead to destruction of soil structure or soul compaction

(iii)it results in the disturbance or removal of top soil

(iv) It exposes the soil to erosion increase

(v) it also leads to reduction of organic matter

(vi)It exposes the soil surface to rainfall which lead to leaching

(vii)It increases the temperature of the soil


Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, and quality of forests to meet values and needs, specifically timber production.



Drainage is a process whereby excess water in the soil is removed artificially to promote good farming activities. In order words, drainage is the withdrawal of excess water from the soil while at 00000000 same time retaining adequate reserves to carry the crops through the period of scarcity.


(i) It is relatively easy to construct

(ii)It is cheaper than th subsurface drainage system

(iii)it minimise the prolonged saturation of soil

(iv)prevent stagnant water

(v)It is cheap to establish and maintain


(Choose any six)

(i)Nitrogen (N)

(ii)oxygen (O)

(iii)calcium (Ca)

(iv) carbon (c)


(vi)copper (Cu)

(vii)Chlorine (cl)


(i)crop rotation: crop rotation is an effective way of controlling weeds associated with specific crop

(ii)Cover cropping: This involves the planting of fast growing crops on land to act as cover and to smother weeds

(iii)Mulching: Mulching involves the placement of dead inactive materials eg grass or straw around planted crops


Ration is the total supply of feed given to an animal in a twenty-four hour period . In order words,ration is the amount of food taken by an animal per day



Agricultural marketing are the activities involved in the flow of goods and services from the producers (farmers) to the final consumers. In Order words, agricultural marketing involves all the activities required to move farm produce from the producers(farmers) to the final consumers.


(Choose any Four)



(iii)Dispersed production

(iv)processing for consumption



(Choose any Four)

(i) Inadequate transport facilities

(ii)Poor supervision of farmers

(iii) Inadequate farm input

(iv) Inadequate extension workers

(v) illiteracy of the farmers

(vi)Poor facilities for extension communication



(Choose Any three)

(i)They stimulate competition in produce marketing by buying produce in bulk

(ii)They have close contact with producers

(iii)They provide storage facilities

(iv)They grant loans to members


(i) It does not always encourage individual Enterprise

(ii) It is prone to financial misappropriation

(iii)It is prone to poor management due to unqualified and incompetent executive handling the co-operative society


(Choose any two)

(i)It enables the farmer to take serious management decision

(ii)It enables the farmer to monitor the changes in prices of produce bought or sold by the farm.

(iii)It enables the farmers to detect fraudulent practices on the farm

(iv)It is used by the farmers for easy procurement of loans from banks

(v)It is used for comparing management efficiency over time



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